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Differences Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Taught in A&P Class

Differences Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Taught in A&P Class

Differences Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Taught in A&P Class

Cells are the basic unit of life. They make up all living things and organic matter, including animals, plants, and bacteria. There are two types of cells as per a&p class: prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

Prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles. They are composed of bacteria and archaea and have a simpler structure. Organelles that are membrane-bound and have a nucleus are both present in eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotes can be classified as plants, animals, or fungi.

Similarities Between Eukaryotic Cells And Prokaryotic Cells

What do eukaryotes share with prokaryotes? Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells share many structures, including:

  • Cell membrane
  • Genetic material
  • Ribosomes
  • Cytoplasm

Cell Membrane

Both prokaryotes as well as eukaryotes have a cell wall, also called the plasma membrane. The plasma membrane, a thin, flexible barrier that protects cells and allows only certain things into and out of them, is thin and flexible. The plasma membrane in both prokaryotes, as well as eukaryotes, is composed of a phospholipid bilayer that’s studded with carbohydrates, proteins, and cholesterol as the chemical composition.

Genetic Material

All cells are genetically made up of DNA, prokaryotes as well as eukaryotes. DNA is a double-helix composed of two complementary nucleotide strands in the average life span. Genetic information is the order of the nucleotides, which determines how the cells grow, function, and reproduce, and how their chemical processes take place.


Both prokaryotes, as well as eukaryotes as a common ingredient, have ribosomes. Ribosomes contain ribonucleotides as well as protein. Although the structure and chemical composition of ribosomes is different between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, they are both made up of two subunits that serve the same purpose: to read mRNA and make protein and amino acids.

Related:- The Role of A&P Class in the Nursing Curriculum


Cytoplasm is a part of every cell. The thick fluid known as cytoplasm is composed of water, salts and sugars, proteins, monomers, and other substances that are necessary for metabolism. Cytoplasm is essential for cell structure and provides a platform for enzyme reactions.

Cell Wall

Every prokaryotic cell has a cell wall. The bacteria cell wall is made up of peptidoglycan, which is a mixture of sugar and protein. Some eukaryotic cells do not have a cell wall. Cell walls in plant cells are made from cellulose, which is a carbohydrate. Animal cells are eukaryotic, but they do not have a wall.

Eukaryotic And Prokaryotic Cells Differ From One Another

There are also differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, which students can learn about in anatomy and physiology course near me, these including the following:

  • Size of cells
  • Cell arrangement
  • Membrane-bound nucleus
  • Organelles membrane-bound
  • DNA structure
  • Size of the ribosome
  • Cytoskeleton
  • Reproduction
  • Cell division

Size of Cells

Prokaryotes, which are smaller than eukaryotes, have simpler cell structures. Prokaryotes are typically between 0.1 and 5 micrometers in size. Eukaryotic cells can be larger, measuring between 10 and 100 micrometers on average. Eukaryotic cells are larger than prokaryotic ones and can be seen by the naked eye in their life cycle.

Cell Arrangement

Prokaryotes almost always exist as single-celled organisms. These include bacteria and archaea.  Eukaryotic cells can create single-cell organisms and multicellular organisms. Eukaryotic cells can form nearly all multicellular organisms, including animals and plants.

True Membrane-Bound Nucleus

Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus that is bound by a membrane. The nuclear membrane, also known as the membrane, is designed to regulate the transport of DNA into and out of the nucleus. The nuclear membrane is a critical component of gene regulation in eukaryotes. The prokaryotes have a nucleotide area where DNA is stored, without any membrane protecting it.

Organelles Membrane-Bound

Eukaryotes possess true membrane-bound organelles. Both prokaryotes, as well as eukaryotes, possess organelles. However, only eukaryotes have membrane-bound organelles. These organelles are enclosed in a phospholipid bilayer membrane and separated from the cell’s interior. These organelles are membrane-bound in the following examples:

  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Lysosomes
  • Mitochondria
  • Chloroplasts
  • Peroxisomes
  • Vesicles
  • Plastids
  • Vacuoles

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