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What is the Anatomy of Canine Spinal?

What is the Anatomy of Canine Spinal?

Frontal and parietal bones constitute the roof of your skull. The floor is composed of sphenoid bones. Students can also join A&P class for a proper understanding of canine spinal anatomy.

Craniums Consist of Five Orbital Regions

Frontal, lacrimal, palatine, sphenoid, and zygomatic. Regarding horses and ruminants, their orbit is complete, while that of carnivores is incomplete but completed by the orbital ligament.

The lacrimal canal channels tears through the lacrimal fossa into nasal cavities.

Temporomandibular Joint

  • Condylar joints with articular disks in the human body & in canine patients can be found between the condyles of mandibular bones and mandibular fossas of temporal bones, providing mobility between them.
  • The lateral ligament is formed from an expanded loose capsule of the joint.
  • Cranial spinal nerve V provides nerve supply for temporalis muscles and joints.

Mandibular symphysis in its various forms

  • The syndesmosis joint is an expansile cartilage of the tympanohyoid (skull).
  • Interhyoid joints (synovial joints)
  • Thyrohyoid refers to the synovial joint located on the thyroid cartilage cranial cornu.

Canine Spinal Anatomy

Canine spinal anatomy and skull in organ systems are very similar to human spine anatomy. Like human spines, canine spines support weight and protect spinal cords while running from base to end of canine bodies.

Canine spines are divided into five areas, which include cervical, caudal, lumbar, sacral vertebrae, and thoracic regions. Each region may have sacral caudal vertices, depending on the species. 

Cervical Vertebrae

The three cervical vertebrae, 1, 2, and 3, comprise the transverse process of atlas and axes.

Canine cervical spine: The joint capsule is strengthened by three thickenings: dorsal, ventral, and lateral.

The second-longest cervical vertebra is known as the axis. The atlantoaxial joint features a pivoting mechanism with loose capsules. An apical ligature connects its dens to occipital bones for complete functionality.

The cervical vertebrae are arranged obliquely along the transverse plane. Their caudal and cranial articular processes face each other ventrolateral while their dorsomedial facing surfaces connect dorsomedial. To understand in a better way must enroll in human anatomy and physiology classes.

Related:- Comparative Anatomy: Definition & Examples

Ligamentum falvum, dorsal long ligament, and ventral long ligament are similar in dogs.

  • The ligamentum flavum connective tissue serves to connect adjacent lamina.
  • The anterior longitudinal ligament connects every vertebra.
  • The rear of the spine is lined with the anterior transverse ligament.

Thoracic vertebrae thoracic vertebrae differ from other vertebrae in several ways. First, these unique bones of major organs articulate with their respective ribs (T1 to Rib 1) via short articular processes attached by sharp spines. Each vertex also boasts a flattened body system, quick articular process, and long spine; caudal processes of these vertebrae face ventrally while their cranial techniques feature oval-shaped facets that face dorsally while they’re located within their respective arches – making these vertebrae unique indeed!

Lumbar Spine

Lumbar vertebrae have more uniform shapes and are longer than their thoracic counterparts. Their articular processes are concave to the dorsal side and mostly arranged sagittally. In contrast, the caudal basic process displays convexity ventrally that matches concavities found in cranial articular processes. Finally, their lack of costal faces distinguishes the lumbar from the thoracic vertebrae.

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Ligaments of the thoracolumbar joints

  • The dorsal long Ligament (DLL) forms part of the floor of an adjacent vertebrae canal from its Axis up to the sacrum, providing resistance against hyperflexion.
  • These elastic ligaments serve to bridge gaps between adjacent arches.
  • The supraspinous comprises thick bands of connective tissue that run along the spine from T2/T3 caudally. This Ligament prevents abnormal separation between spinous processes when the spine flexes; furthermore, its funicular portion forms part of the nuchal ligament to serve this same major function.